Water Pollution ll Sources and control Measures of water pollution

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The state of deviation from the pure condition of water due to the mixing of foreign substances whereby its normal functions and properties are affected is known as water pollution. Populated water is harmful to animals and plants as well as unfit for domestic, industrial and agricultural uses.

The domestic wastes from rural and urban areas, sewage and garbage from industries, hotels, chemicals, and sludge of hospitals, industries, and factories are the major factors for water pollution.

Polluted water has any one or more of the following signs

  1. It has a bad taste to drink.
  2. It has an offensive odor.
  3. Also, it has an unpleasant color.
  4. There is an unchecked growth of weeds.                     
  5. It may have oil or grease floating on the surface.

Sources of water pollution

The main sources that are responsible for water pollution are

  1. Sewage and domestic wastes: It includes excreta of animals and human, dead and decay parts of animals and plants, sewage, sludge, soap, detergents, untreated municipal sewage, etc. Most of the parts of the wastes come from the cooking room. These all pollutants mix directly or indirectly to the source of water.
  2. Industrial effluents: It contains toxic materials, chemicals and hazardous compounds like aldehyde, ketones, phenols, cyanides, oils grease, dyes, acids, alkalies corrosive metals like Pb, Hg, Sb, etc from industries, hospitals, auto-work shop, laboratories, etc.
  3. Agricultural discharges: The residues of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticide, and herbicides retain on the soil surface and dissolve in water due to which uncontrolled growth of weed occurs and ponds, lakes, etc are converted into grassy lands. Mixing of the residue of pesticides, fertilizers, insecticides to drinkable water causes diseases like dysentery, cholera, typhoid, etc.
  4. Thermal pollutants: Coal-fired or nuclear fuel-fired steam power plants are the sources of thermal pollution in which only a fraction of the heat is converted into useful works and the rest is wasted. The condenser of power plants are drained to water sources like river or lakes at a high temperature which decreases the D.O. of water and it adversely affects aquatic life.
  5. Siltation: it is the process of mixing of soil and rock particles into water. It is a serious problem for the hilly region. It is mainly due to flooding and soil erosion.
  6. Radioactive materials:  Different human activities like mining and processing of ores to produce radioactive substances, uses of radioactive weapons, use of radioactive materials in power plants and uses of radioactive isotopes in medical, industries and research works are the main sources of radioactive materials.

What are the pollutants of water pollution ?

Types of water pollutants

According to nature and compositions, water pollutants are of following types

  1. Inorganic pollutants: It includes a broad range of pollutants such as acids and bases like HNO3, HCl, NaOH, Ca(OH)2, NH3, etc soluble salts like carbonates, acetates, nitrates, sulphates, bicarbonate, etc and inorganic pesticides.
  2. Organic pollutants: It includes oxygen demanding wastes, plant nutrients, sewage, synthetic organic compounds, fats, and oils.
  3. Sediments: They are the most extensive pollutants of surface water and are produced by soil erosion, flooding, agricultural and construction activity.
  4. Radioactive materials: Different human activities like mining and processing of ores to produce radioactive substances, uses of radioactive weapons, use of radioactive materials in power plants and uses of radioactive isotopes in medical, industries and research works are the main sources of radioactive materials.

Why to control water pollution?

Because of the following reasons, if you don’t aware and move forward to control it. Then one day you will be the victim of water pollution.

Water is the most interrelated substance with living things and humans. So its pollution can cause immense harm to public health. Some effects of water pollution are immediately recognized while others are only reflected after months or year later. Some effects of water pollutions are given here,

  1. Spread of infectious diseases: Water is the carrier of pathogenic micro-organisms and can cause adverse effects on public health. The water-borne diseases like typhoid, paratyphoid fever, dysentery, cholera, polio, etc. different skin diseases, poor blood circulation, etc are the main problem of polluted water.
  2.  Destroy of the aquatic ecosystem: sewage and runoff (fertilizers) from agricultural lands provide nutrients to the algae, weeds in the bottom of water sources and increase the overgrowth of the plants which cover the pond, lake and finally they turn in to grassy lands. The growth of plants in the water source causes the D.O.
  3. Destroy of aquatic life: Residue of pesticides, herbicides, toxic, oils, acid, and alkaline chemicals directly affect the aquatic life. It causes a decrease in D. O. Such pollutants to retard the breeding rates and damage the plants and animals.
  4. Damage of property of water: Pollutants destroy the natural properties of water. It causes acidity, turbidity, alkalinity and increases the temperature of the water.
  5. Contamination of marine food sources: Marine foodstuff is contaminated by polluted water which ultimately affects human health.

Control measures of Water Pollution

  1. The wastes from industries, factories, pharmaceuticals, and hospitals must be managed properly.
  2. Most of the wastes must be preceded for recycling.
  3. Sufficient and accessible dumping sites must be managed in rural and urban areas.
  4. Public awareness campaigned should be launched by central as well as local authorities.
  5. Sewage, industrial wastes should be preceded for aerobic and anaerobic treatment.
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