In structure different types and nature of the load are presents. Before designing a structure different types of loads on structures to be applied on is calculated and to withstand those loads a structure is designed. These loads on structure play an important role in the durability as well as the safety of the structures.
Loads are applied on a structure in vertical direction, horizontal direction and longitudinal. Load may be artificial or nature. It may be temporary or permanently.
A. Based on Design Purpose
a. Dead Load: Dead loads are the self-weight of the structures i.e. slab, beam, columns, finishes. Such loads do not change their position. In advanced structural analysis, there are other types of support about i.e. spring support, rotational support, etc.
b. Live Load: It is the load that is imported in the structure when it’s on purpose the position magnitude of line load may change. eg. load of a student, man, movable chairs, books, etc.
c. Dynamic Load: Load imposed due to ground motion, vibration, due to moving load in bridges.
d. Wind Load: Load due to high speed moving air on the structures.
e. Erection Load: These are just like a live load. The erection load is load due to strong construction materials like aggregate, cement, sand, etc.
f. Temperature Effects: Load developed due to the variation of temperature.
g. Seismic Load: Earthquakes are caused due to the ground motion due to various reasons e g.tectonics movement, volcanic eruption, blasting, etc. They must be considered in the designing of structure.
B. According to the Loading Problem
a. Points load/concentrated Load: Load that applied in the negligible area compared to the contact plane area of the member. e.g. load due to a secondary beam on the main beam. The unit of this type of load in kN.
b. Uniformly Distributed Load (UDL): They are distributed uniformly only the length of the loaded members. e.g. loads of slab on beam, wall on beam, etc. The unit is kN/m.
c. Uniformly Varying Load (UVL): They are not distributed uniformly instead may be in linear, parabolic, cubic manner. E.g. a load of water on the tank surface is uniformly varying.
C. Load Resisting Mechanism
a. Compressive/Tensile load: These are either point or distributed load along the longitudinal axis of member e.g. external loads on truss element.
b. Couple Moment: The bending effect caused by two equal opposite force.
c. Twisting Load: The couple applied with the direction along the longitudinal axis of member e.g. in the rotation shaft.
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