# Surveying

Surveying is the art of determining the relative position of various points above, on or below the surface of the earth. The relative positions are determined by measuring horizontal distances, vertical distances (elevations), horizontal angles and vertical angles accurately using various surveying instruments.

After taking the measurements in the field, computation is done and the plans and maps are prepared in the office. These plans the maps are used for planning of engineering works, marking of boundaries, computations of areas and volumes, and various other purpose.

Surveying also includes the art of setting out or locating the point on the ground from the plan or map. The points and lines have to be located on the ground before starting the construction of engineering work, such as buildings, roads, bridges, and dams.

The first stage in all the big projects is generally to survey the area and to prepare plans. These plans are used in the preparation of the detailed drawing, design, and estimate of the project. After finalizing the drawings, setting out is done by establishing the various points and lines on the ground from the drawing.

Surveying is simple in concept but it requires great skill and practice for doing the work accurately and economically. It requires basic knowledge of various disciplines such as mathematics, physics, geodesy, and astronomy.

The need for accurate surveying increasing rapidly with the development in technology construction of modern buildings, highways, high dams, long bridges, and tunnels requires accurate surveying. As the cost of the land the property is increasing rapidly high accuracy is required in marking boundaries and the land subdivision.

## Objectives of Surveying

The propose or objective of surveying is as following:

1.  To take measurements to determine the relative positions of the existing features on or near the ground.
2. To layout or to mark the positions of the proposed structure on the ground.
3. To show the natural features like terrain, rivers, mountain, depressions, lakes, forest etc. Political features like a town, village, districts, zones, country boundaries as well as different engineering works like roads, railways, canals, bridges, dams, etc.
4. To determine areas, volumes, and other related quantities.

Also read a similar type of article by #civiltoday: What is Surveying?

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