Mechanical Properties Of Materials

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Mechanical properties of materials are the characteristics of a material that are displayed under the account of an external force applied to the material. These properties are most important in selecting the material for structural components.

Since, they lead to determine the load resisting capacity, durability flexibility of the materials.

List of mechanical properties Of Materials

1. Strength

It is defined as the ability of the materials to sustain loads without destruction or failure. External load per unit-applied area is termed as strength. The loads to which a material is generally subjected to are tension, compression, bending and shear. The corresponding stress is obtained by dividing the ultimate load with the cross-sectional area of the specimen.

Strength or Stress is categorized into three types.

  1. Compressive strength
  2. Tensile strength
  3. Shear strength

2. Hardness

Hardness is the ability of the material to resist plastic deformation usually by indentation. It is also expressed as the ability to resist against stretching, abrasion, cutting and penetration. It is not the fundamental properties but it is due to the combination of compressive, elastic and plastic properties.

This property is the major factor in deciding the workability and the use of a material for various applications.

Tests such as Vickers test, Rockwell test, Brined test etc. are generally carried out to test the hardness of material.

3. Toughness (Tenacity)

Toughness is the ability of the material to withstand bending or application of shear without fracture. It is also expressed as energy absorbed per unit volume of material within the plastic region.

It is the ability of the material to resist the maximum external force without fracture within the plastic deformation. The area under the strain stress curve indicates the toughness.

4. Ductility

The capacity of a material to go large plastic deformation under tensile load without rupture is called ductility. Due to this property metallic item like C.G.I, Bonding wires, wires Reinforcements are made.

5. Elasticity

When a load is applied to a material there is a change in its dimensions and shape. The properties of material in which the material can regain its original shape after going through deformation, after the removal of the applied load.

Elastic is the limit up to which material can regain its original shape. After elastic limit material becomes plastic.

6. Plasticity

Plasticity is the property of a material to undergo permanent deformation even after the removal of the applied load.

7. Resilience

Resilience is the property of material to store the energy (When deformed elastically and to retain when unloaded) to resist the impact or stock. It resists the springing effect of the material.

It is also described as the properties of material or ability of the material to resist the maximum external force without fracture within the elastic deformation.

8. Creep

Creep can be define as the slow and progressive deformation of a material with time under contact stress mostly at high temperature the creep behavior of the material is primary important in the design of steel beam, IC Engine, boiler, turbines.

The creep at room temperature is known slow temperature creep and can occur in load pipes, roofing, and glass as well as in white metal bearing. The creep at high temperature is known as high temperature creep. It mainly depends upon the metal, service temperature to be encountered and stress involved.

10. Malleability

Property of material to be beaten in to thin sheets or foils. Infact, thin is the capacity of a material to withstand deformation under compression without rupture. These properties generally increase with the increase of temperature.

11. Impact strength

Strength to resist sudden shock or impact over the material is known as impact strength. Impact strength of a material indicates the toughness of material. The impact strength machine is used to determine the impact strength of material.

12. Abrasive Resistance

It is the property of a material to resist the weaning of the surface of the material due to friction between one another which are the most important properties in road construction materials.

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