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Lighting in the buildings is a major factor in designing a good building. Lighting inside a building is necessary to illuminate the interior and its contents to perform the tasks, e.g reading, walking up or down stairs and carry out other indoor activities.
Requirements for Lighting in the building
- Source of light should be steady.
- Degree or level of illumination must be suitable.
- Should not cause excessive heat.
- Glare should be eliminated.
- Inconvenience shadows should be avoided.
Day Light :
- The quantity of daylight that is through a window /roof.
- Large glazing areas may cause discomfort due to glare or overheating.
- Careful design considerations are required.
Types of Lighting
(a) Natural Lighting :
- Source of natural lighting is sun.
- Sun is very important in building design due to following reasons:
- Source of natural lighting.
- Placement, size, type and orientation of openings are important for penetration of fi
- Poorly designed glazing, admitting too much solar radiation at the wrong time of a day or period of the year leads to overheating.
- It can lead to increased energy consumption, need for mechanical cooling.
- It also can lead to uncomfortable environment, high daytime temperature, cool night time temperatures increased heating load in winter.
- Shading device can protect the summer sun and also the monsoon rain.
(b) Artificial Lighting
- Light is artificial by electricity.
- Generally static and unchanging.
- Purpose of artificial lighting system is to provide illumination to perform visual tasks.
- Quality of lighting varies according to the light diffusion, color and brightness ratio.
Guidelines for Provision of Openings to Afford Good Lighting
- Broader openings give better distribution of light.
- Openings on two opposite sides give greater uniformity of internal day light illumination.
- Cross lighting with openings on adjacent walls tends to increase the diffused light within a room.
- Opening provided with sun shades louvers, baffles or other shading devices to exclude the possible direct sunlight into the room
The principal factors to be considered for satisfactory room lighting are:
- Room Dimensions: Ceiling height and floor area.
- Architecture or structural features that can affect lighting.
- Reflectance, diffusion, and absorption of light by ceilings, walls, floor, and furnishings.
- Proper selection of luminaries by evaluating their light distribution efficiency, decorative value, elimination of glare and economy.
- Height and spacing of luminaries within rooms based on room function.
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