The application of water artificially to the land for cultivation purposes is known as irrigation. According to the requirements of crops, water is provided. The main purpose of irrigation is to raise crops and increase productivity. For agriculture, we need Land for cultivation, seeds, and water.
Advantages and disadvantages of irrigation system:
Advantages of the irrigation system
- Increase in crop yield: Water is supplied to obtain the maximum yield.
- Protection form famine(scarcity of food): In drought seasons if the land gets sufficient Water, it helps to reduce the famine problem.
- For domestic water supply: The irrigation canals are also used for drinking water for animals as well as someplace for human beings too. Similarly, daily household requirements of Water are also fulfilled by irrigation canals.
- Inland navigation: Big Irrigation canals are also used for navigation purposes.
- Generation of hydropower: At the same time irrigation canals water is used for the generation of hydropower. Mostly those type of projects is multidimensional projects. One of the best exams of this type of project is Bheri Babai Diversion Multipurpose Project (BBDMP).
- Afforestation: Trees and shrubs are grown along the bank of irrigation canals.
- General prosperity: Due to irrigation larger bare land converted into cultivatable land and from the production of agro products country can generate the revenue.
- Elimination of mixed cropping: In those areas where irrigation facility is not available, farmers used to adopt mixed cropping. When the reliable source or irrigation is available a single superior crop is down depending upon the condition of soil and market requirements which ultimately helps farmers to earn more Penny on pockets.
- Increase in employment: The backbone of every country is its agricultural system. In recent years due to lack of water for irrigation and the good market price of agricultural products, farmers are diverting to another profession which is a great disaster for every country. So, governments are investing heavily in developing new irrigation systems which also increases the possibility of employment in agricultural fields.
- Improvement in the groundwater table.
- Development of a nation.
- Optimum benefits.
Also Read: Landslide problem and its control measure
Disadvantages of the irrigation system
- Water Pollution: Different fertilizer used in the field mixed with the water and seepage to the Groundwater table which causes the pollution of groundwater.
- Waterlogging: Due to over-irrigation, the water table reaches near the root zone of crops, which decrease the growth of crops and reduce the crop yield.
- Due to the intense irritation or over-irrigation, the climate of that region becomes quite damp and cold. And the land will be marshy.
- Cross drainage structures such as bridge, culverts are required to cross the canal which increases the cost.
- Due to the excessive application of water and leakage from canals, smalls pits get filled with water. Which later act as breeding places for the mosquitoes and that area malaria-prone.
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