Differences between cast iron, wrought iron, mild steel and hard steel

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In this article, we discussed about the differences between the cast iron, wrought iron, mild steel, and hard steel respectively.
Mainly, for civil engineers, it is necessary to know the difference between these irons and steel so that they have good ideas and knowledge about where to use it and where not.

1. Cast iron (C.I)2. Wrought iron (W.I)3. Mild steel (M.S)4. Hard steel (H.S)
2.5% of C 0 to 0.25% of C 0.08 to 0.35%of C 0.55 to 1.3% of C
Sp. Gravity-7.5 Sp. Gravity-7.25 Sp. Gravity-7.8 Sp. Gravity-7.9
Does not rust
Rust more easily
than C.I
Rust readily Rust rapidly
Melting point- 1200ºC Melting point-1530ºC Melting point-1400ºC Melting point-1300ºC
malleable nor
Very malleable
and ductile
Malleable and ductile Brittle and
less ductile than M.S
Crystalline coarse
granular structure
Fibrous structure of
bluish color
Bright fibrous structure Fine granular structure
Hard and brittle Tough and more elastic than C.I Tough and more elastic
than W.I
Tough and more elastic
than M.S
Cannot be
Can be temporarily
Can be permanently
Can be permanently
Cannot absorb
Can stand certain and
excessive shock
Can absorb shocks. Can absorb shocks.
Tensile strength is fair
and compressive
strength good.
Tensile strength better
and compressive
strength not so good.
Tensile strength better
than C.I and W.I but
compressive strength
better than W.I but less
than C.I
Both Tensile strength
and compressive strength is better than rest of
the three.
Becomes soft in salty
Resist salty water than
Not much effected by
salty water
Not much effected by
salty water
Used for water pipe,
electric pole etc.
Corrugated sheets,
Carin hooks, core of
electromagnet etc.
Used in all kinds of
structural member and
bridges and building
works, channel section
Used in cutting tools,
pre-stressed concrete.

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